Greenland freshwater runoff. Part I: A runoff routing model for glaciated and nonglaciated landscapes (HydroFlow)
Liston, G.E., and S.H. Mernild, 2012: “Greenland freshwater runoff. Part I: A runoff routing model for glaciated and nonglaciated landscapes (HydroFlow).” Journal of Climate, v. 25, pp. 5997–6014, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00591.1.
A gridded linear-reservoir runoff routing model (HydroFlow) was developed to simulate the linkages between runoff production from land-based snowmelt and icemelt processes and the associated freshwater fluxes to downstream areas and surrounding oceans. HydroFlow was specifically designed to account for glacier, ice sheet, and snow-free and snow-covered land applications. Its performance was verified for a test area in southeast Greenland that contains the Mittivakkat Glacier, the local glacier in Greenland with the longest observed time series of mass-balance and ice-front fluctuations. The time evolution of spatially distributed gridcell runoffs required by HydroFlow were provided by the SnowModel snow-evolution modeling system, driven with observed atmospheric data, for the years 2003 through 2010. The spatial and seasonal variations in HydroFlow hydrographs show substantial correlations when compared with observed discharge coming from the Mittivakkat Glacier area and draining into the adjacent ocean. As part of its discharge simulations, HydroFlow creates a flow network that links the individual grid cells that make up the simulation domain. The collection of networks that drain to the ocean produced a range of runoff values that varied most strongly according to catchment size and percentage and elevational distribution of glacier cover within each individual catchment. For 2003–10, the average annual Mittivakkat Glacier region runoff period was 200 ± 20 days, with a significant increase in annual runoff over the 8-yr study period, both in terms of the number of days (30 days) and in volume (54.9 × 106 m3).